Reversible sequestration of active site cysteines in a 2Fe-2S-bridged dimer provides a mechanism for glutaredoxin 2 regulation in human mitochondria.
Johansson C., Kavanagh KL., Gileadi O., Oppermann U.
Human mitochondrial glutaredoxin 2 (GLRX2), which controls intracellular redox balance and apoptosis, exists in a dynamic equilibrium of enzymatically active monomers and quiescent dimers. Crystal structures of both monomeric and dimeric forms of human GLRX2 reveal a distinct glutathione binding mode and show a 2Fe-2S-bridged dimer. The iron-sulfur cluster is coordinated through the N-terminal active site cysteine, Cys-37, and reduced glutathione. The structures indicate that the enzyme can be inhibited by a high GSH/GSSG ratio either by forming a 2Fe-2S-bridged dimer that locks away the N-terminal active site cysteine or by binding non-covalently and blocking the active site as seen in the monomer. The properties that permit GLRX2, and not other glutaredoxins, to form an iron-sulfur-containing dimer are likely due to the proline-to-serine substitution in the active site motif, allowing the main chain more flexibility in this area and providing polar interaction with the stabilizing glutathione. This appears to be a novel use of an iron-sulfur cluster in which binding of the cluster inactivates the protein by sequestering active site residues and where loss of the cluster through changes in subcellular redox status creates a catalytically active protein. Under oxidizing conditions, the dimers would readily separate into iron-free active monomers, providing a structural explanation for glutaredoxin activation under oxidative stress.