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Atherosclerosis, the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is driven by inflammation. Increasing evidence suggests that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key orchestrators of the atherosclerotic disease process. Interestingly, a distinct picture is being revealed for individual receptors in atherosclerosis. TLRs exhibit a complex nature enabling the detection of multiple motifs named danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Activation of these receptors triggers an intracellular signalling cascade mediated through MyD88 or TRIF, leading to the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In this review we explore key novel findings pertaining to TLR signalling in atherosclerosis, including recently described endosomal TLRs and future directions in TLR research.

Type

Journal

International journal of molecular sciences

Publication Date

01/2013

Volume

14

Pages

14008 - 14023

Addresses

Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, NDORMS, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7FY, UK. m.falck-hansen09@imperial.ac.uk

Keywords

Animals, Humans, Apolipoproteins E, Risk Factors, Signal Transduction, Atherosclerosis, Toll-Like Receptors, Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88