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Coaxial four-needle electrohydrodynamic forming is applied for the first time to prepare layered structures in both particle and fiber form. Four different biocompatible polymers, polyethylene glycol, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid), polycaprolactone, and polymethylsilsesquioxane, are used to generate four distinct layers confirmed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy combined with focused ion beam milling. The incorporation and release of different dyes within the polymeric system of four layers are demonstrated, something that is much desired in modern applications such as the polypill where multiple active pharmaceutical ingredients can be combined to treat numerous diseases.

Original publication




Journal article


Macromol rapid commun

Publication Date





618 - 623


coaxial device, electrohydrodynamic, multilayered structures, polymers, Drug Carriers, Drug Delivery Systems, Needles, Particle Size, Polymers