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The adaptive immune response is initiated by the interaction of T cell antigen receptors with major histocompatibility complex molecule-peptide complexes in the nanometer scale gap between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell, referred to as an immunological synapse. In this review we focus on the concept of immunological synapse formation as it relates to membrane structure, T cell polarity, signaling pathways, and the antigen-presenting cell. Membrane domains provide an organizational principle for compartmentalization within the immunological synapse. T cell polarization by chemokines increases T cell sensitivity to antigen. The current model is that signaling and formation of the immunological synapse are tightly interwoven in mature T cells. We also extend this model to natural killer cell activation, where the inhibitory NK synapse provides a striking example in which inhibition of signaling leaves the synapse in its nascent, inverted state. The APC may also play an active role in immunological synapse formation, particularly for activation of naïve T cells.

Original publication

DOI

10.1146/annurev.immunol.19.1.375

Type

Journal article

Journal

Annual review of immunology

Publication Date

01/2001

Volume

19

Pages

375 - 396

Addresses

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Ave, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

Keywords

Killer Cells, Natural, T-Lymphocyte Subsets, Cell Membrane, Membrane Microdomains, Animals, Mice, Cholera Toxin, Cell Adhesion Molecules, Receptors, Chemokine, Receptors, Immunologic, Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell, Chemokines, Lymphocyte Activation, Cell Adhesion, Cell Communication, Signal Transduction, Cell Polarity, Immunologic Capping, Antigen Presentation, Models, Immunological