Fluorescent Bisphosphonate and Carboxyphosphonate Probes: A Versatile Imaging Toolkit for Applications in Bone Biology and Biomedicine.
Sun S., Błażewska KM., Kadina AP., Kashemirov BA., Duan X., Triffitt JT., Dunford JE., Russell RGG., Ebetino FH., Roelofs AJ., Coxon FP., Lundy MW., McKenna CE.
A bone imaging toolkit of 21 fluorescent probes with variable spectroscopic properties, bone mineral binding affinities, and antiprenylation activities has been created, including a novel linking strategy. The linking chemistry allows attachment of a diverse selection of dyes fluorescent in the visible to near-infrared range to any of the three clinically important heterocyclic bisphosphonate bone drugs (risedronate, zoledronate, and minodronate or their analogues). The resultant suite of conjugates offers multiple options to "mix and match" parent drug structure, fluorescence emission wavelength, relative bone affinity, and presence or absence of antiprenylation activity, for bone-related imaging applications.