Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BACKGROUND: Prior to the discovery of filaggrin (FLG) mutations, evidence for an impaired skin barrier in atopic dermatitis (AD) has been documented, and changes in ceramide profile, altered skin pH and increased trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) in patients with AD have been reported. Until now, no studies have analysed stratum corneum (SC) lipids combined with skin barrier parameters in subjects of known FLG genotype. METHODS: A cohort of 49 German individuals genotyped for the most common FLG mutations (R501X, 2282del4) had SC samples taken for lipid analysis by high-performance thin layer chromatography. In addition, TEWL, erythema, skin hydration and pH were measured. In 27 of the 49 individuals, a 24-h irritation patch test with sodium lauryl sulphate was performed. For the analysis, both the AD group and the control group were stratified by FLG mutation status (FLGmut/FLGwt). RESULTS: In the FLGmut AD group, significantly lower levels of ceramide 4 and significantly higher levels of ceramide 7 were observed when compared to both healthy control groups. However, ceramide 7 levels also significantly differed between FLGwt AD and FLGwt controls, as did ceramide 1 levels. No significant differences were observed for ceramide 2, 3, 5 and 6. FLGmut individuals had significantly higher skin pH values than individuals not carrying FLG mutations. Patients with AD with FLG mutations had significantly higher erythema compared to patients with AD without FLG mutations. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm previous observations of altered ceramide levels in AD, which however appear to show no clear relationship with FLG mutations.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





911 - 918


Ceramides, Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid, Dermatitis, Atopic, Female, Humans, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Intermediate Filament Proteins, Lipids, Male, Middle Aged, Mutation, Skin