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Insulin gene (INS) mutations cause a rare form of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), a heterogeneous group of autosomal dominant diabetes with at least 14 confirmed causative genes. Here, we describe a family with MODY due to a novel INS mutation, detected using massively parallel sequencing (MPS). The proband presented aged 11 years with mild diabetic ketoacidosis. She was negative for IA2 and GAD antibodies. She had a strong family history of diabetes affecting both her two siblings and her mother, none of whom had ketosis but who were considered to have type 1 diabetes and managed on insulin, and her maternal grandfather, who was managed for decades on sulfonylureas. Of note, her younger sister had insulin deficiency but an elevated fasting proinsulin:insulin ratio of 76% (ref 5%-30%). Sanger sequencing of HNF4A, HNF1A, and HNF1B in the proband was negative. Targeted MPS using a custom-designed amplicon panel sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq detected a heterozygous INS mutation c.277G>A (p.Glu93Lys). Sanger sequencing confirmed the variant segregated with diabetes within the family. Structural analysis of this variant suggested disruption of a critical hydrogen bond between insulin and the insulin receptor; however, the clinical picture in some individuals also suggested abnormal insulin processing and insulin deficiency. This family has a novel INS mutation and demonstrated variable insulin deficiency. MPS represents an efficient method of MODY diagnosis in families with rarer gene mutations.

Original publication




Journal article


Pediatr diabetes

Publication Date





905 - 909


genetic sequencing, insulin gene, massively parallel sequencing, maturity-onset diabetes on the young, monogenic diabetes, Adult, Aged, Child, DNA Mutational Analysis, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Female, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, Humans, Insulin, Insulin Secretion, Male