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Professor Tonia Vincent, of the Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, discusses osteoarthritis of the hand on Radio 4's Woman's Hour.
Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) NF-κB signaling regulates the balance between mucosal homeostasis and inflammation. It is not fully understood which signals tune this balance and how bacterial exposure elicits the process. Pure LPS induces epithelial NF-κB activation in vivo. However, we found that in mice, IECs do not respond directly to LPS. Instead, tissue-resident lamina propria intercrypt macrophages sense LPS via TLR4 and rapidly secrete TNF to elicit epithelial NF-κB signaling in their immediate neighborhood. This response pattern is relevant also during oral enteropathogen infection. The macrophage–TNF–IEC axis avoids responses to luminal microbiota LPS but enables crypt- or tissue-scale epithelial NF-κB responses in proportion to the microbial threat. Thereby, intercrypt macrophages fulfill important sentinel functions as first responders to Gram-negative microbes breaching the epithelial barrier. The tunability of this crypt response allows the induction of defense mechanisms at an appropriate scale according to the localization and intensity of microbial triggers.
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 is protective in atherosclerosis and its metabolites provide new opportunities for drug development.
Atherosclerosis is the major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death worldwide. Despite much focus on lipid abnormalities in atherosclerosis, it is clear that the immune system also has important pro- and antiatherogenic functions. The enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyses degradation of the essential amino acid tryptophan into immunomodulatory metabolites. How IDO deficiency affects immune responses during atherogenesis is unknown and we explored potential mechanisms in models of murine and human atherosclerosis. IDO deficiency in hypercholesterolemic ApoE(-/-) mice caused a significant increase in lesion size and surrogate markers of plaque vulnerability. No significant changes in cholesterol levels were observed but decreases in IL-10 production were found in the peripheral blood, spleen and lymph node B cells of IDO-deficient compared with IDO-competent ApoE(-/-) mice. 3,4,-Dimethoxycinnamoyl anthranilic acid (3,4-DAA), an orally active synthetic derivative of the tryptophan metabolite anthranilic acid, but not l-kynurenine, enhanced production of IL-10 in cultured splenic B cells. Finally, 3,4-DAA treatment reduced lesion formation and inflammation after collar-induced arterial injury in ApoE(-/-) mice, and reduced cytokine and chemokine production in ex vivo human atheroma cell cultures. Our data demonstrate that endogenous production of tryptophan metabolites via IDO is an essential feedback loop that controls atherogenesis and athero-inflammation. We show that the IDO pathway induces production of IL-10 in B cells in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that IDO may induce immunoregulatory functions of B cells in atherosclerosis. The favorable effects of anthranilic acid derivatives in atherosclerosis indicate a novel approach toward therapy of CVD.
[Figure: see text].
Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease and is largely responsible for cardiovascular disease, the most common cause of global mortality. The hallmark of atherogenesis is immune activation following lipid accumulation in the arterial wall. In particular, macrophages play a non-redundant role in both the progression and regression of inflammation in the atherosclerotic lesion. Macrophages are remarkably heterogeneous phagocytes that perform versatile functions in health and disease. Their functional diversity in vascular biology is only partially mapped. Targeting macrophages is often highlighted as a therapeutic approach for cancer, metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Future strategies for therapeutic intervention in atherosclerosis may benefit from attempts to reduce local proliferation of pro-inflammatory macrophage subsets or enhance resolution of inflammation. Thus, characterisation of macrophage subsets during atherosclerosis would empower clinical interventions. Therefore, it would be of fundamental importance to understand how pathological factors modulate macrophage activity in order to exploit their use in the treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases.
Macrophages, a significant component of atherosclerotic plaques vulnerable to acute complications, can be pro-inflammatory (designated M1), regulatory (M2), lipid- (Mox) or Heme-induced (Mhem). We showed previously that low (LSS) and oscillatory (OSS) shear stress cause thin-cap fibroatheroma and stable smooth muscle cell-rich plaque formation respectively in ApoE-knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Here we investigated whether different shear stress conditions relate to specific changes in macrophage polarization and plaque morphology by applying a shear stress-altering cast to the carotid arteries of high fat-fed ApoE(-/-) mice. The M1 markers iNOS and IRF5 were highly expressed in macrophage-rich areas of LSS lesions compared to OSS lesions 6weeks after cast placement, while the M2 marker Arginase-1, and Mox/Mhem markers HO-1 and CD163 were elevated in OSS lesions. Our data indicates shear stress could be an important determinant of macrophage polarization in atherosclerosis, with low shear promoting M1 programming.
B regulatory cells are increased in hypercholesterolaemic mice and protect from lesion development via IL-10.
Whilst innate B1-B cells are atheroprotective, adaptive B2-B cells are considered pro-atherogenic. Different subsets of B regulatory cells (B(reg)) have been described. In experimental arthritis and lupus-like disease, B(reg) are contained within the CD21(hi)CD23(hi)CD24(hi) B cell pool. The existence and role of B(reg) in vascular disease is not known. We sought to investigate the existence, identity and location of B(reg) in vascular disease. The representation of B2-B cell subsets in the spleens and lymph nodes (LNs) of Apolipoprotein E(-/-) (ApoE(-/-)) mice compared to controls was characterised by flow cytometry. Additionally, we utilised a model of neointima formation based on the placement of a perivascular collar around the carotid artery in ApoE(-/-) mice to ascertain whether B cells and B cell subsets confer protection against lesion development. Adoptive transfer of B cells was performed from wild type or genetically modified mice. We showed that CD21(hi)CD23(hi)CD24(hi) B cells are unexpectedly increased in the draining LNs of ApoE(-/-) mice. Adoptive transfer of LN-derived B2-B cells or purified CD21(hi)CD23(hi)CD24(hi) B cells to syngeneic mice reduced lesion size and inflammation without changing serum cholesterol levels. Follicular B2-B cells did not confer protection. IL-10 blockade or transfer of IL10-deficient B cells prevented LN-derived B cell-mediated protection. This is the first identification of a specific LN-derived B2-B(reg) subset that confers IL-10 mediated protection from neointima formation. This may open the way for immune modulatory approaches in cardiovascular disease.
Immune cell census in murine atherosclerosis: cytometry by time of flight illuminates vascular myeloid cell diversity.
Aims: Atherosclerosis is characterized by the abundant infiltration of myeloid cells starting at early stages of disease. Myeloid cells are key players in vascular immunity during atherogenesis. However, the subsets of vascular myeloid cells have eluded resolution due to shared marker expression and atypical heterogeneity in vascular tissues. We applied the high-dimensionality of mass cytometry to the study of myeloid cell subsets in atherosclerosis. Methods and results: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice were fed a chow or a high fat (western) diet for 12 weeks. Single-cell aortic preparations were probed with a panel of 35 metal-conjugated antibodies using cytometry by time of flight (CyTOF). Clustering of marker expression on live CD45+ cells from the aortas of ApoE-/- mice identified 13 broad populations of leucocytes. Monocyte, macrophage, type 1 and type 2 conventional dendritic cell (cDC1 and cDC2), plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC), neutrophil, eosinophil, B cell, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell, γδ T cell, natural killer (NK) cell, and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) populations accounted for approximately 95% of the live CD45+ aortic cells. Automated clustering algorithms applied to the Lin-CD11blo-hi cells revealed 20 clusters of myeloid cells. Comparison between chow and high fat fed animals revealed increases in monocytes (both Ly6C+ and Ly6C-), pDC, and a CD11c+ macrophage subset with high fat feeding. Concomitantly, the proportions of CD206+ CD169+ subsets of macrophages were significantly reduced as were cDC2. Conclusions: A CyTOF-based comprehensive mapping of the immune cell subsets within atherosclerotic aortas from ApoE-/- mice offers tools for myeloid cell discrimination within the vascular compartment and it reveals that high fat feeding skews the myeloid cell repertoire toward inflammatory monocyte-macrophage populations rather than resident macrophage phenotypes and cDC2 during atherogenesis.
Interferon Regulatory Factor 5 Controls Necrotic Core Formation in Atherosclerotic Lesions by Impairing Efferocytosis.
BACKGROUND: Myeloid cells are central to atherosclerotic lesion development and vulnerable plaque formation. Impaired ability of arterial phagocytes to uptake apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) promotes lesion growth and establishment of a necrotic core. The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-5 is an important modulator of myeloid function and programming. We sought to investigate whether IRF5 affects the formation and phenotype of atherosclerotic lesions. METHODS: We investigated the role of IRF5 in atherosclerosis in 2 complementary models. First, atherosclerotic lesion development in hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice and ApoE-/- mice with a genetic deletion of IRF5 (ApoE-/-Irf5-/-) was compared and then lesion development was assessed in a model of shear stress-modulated vulnerable plaque formation. RESULTS: Both lesion and necrotic core size were significantly reduced in ApoE-/-Irf5-/- mice compared with IRF5-competent ApoE-/- mice. Necrotic core size was also reduced in the model of shear stress-modulated vulnerable plaque formation. A significant loss of CD11c+ macrophages was evident in ApoE-/-Irf5-/- mice in the aorta, draining lymph nodes, and bone marrow cell cultures, indicating that IRF5 maintains CD11c+ macrophages in atherosclerosis. Moreover, we revealed that the CD11c gene is a direct target of IRF5 in macrophages. In the absence of IRF5, CD11c- macrophages displayed a significant increase in expression of the efferocytosis-regulating integrin-β3 and its ligand milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 protein and enhanced efferocytosis in vitro and in situ. CONCLUSIONS: IRF5 is detrimental in atherosclerosis by promoting the maintenance of proinflammatory CD11c+ macrophages within lesions and controlling the expansion of the necrotic core by impairing efferocytosis.
OBJECTIVE: A hitherto undescribed phenotype of early onset muscular dystrophy associated with sensorineural hearing loss and primary ovarian insufficiency was initially identified in 2 siblings and in subsequent patients with a similar constellation of findings. The goal of this study was to understand the genetic and molecular etiology of this condition. METHODS: We applied whole exome sequencing (WES) superimposed on shared haplotype regions to identify the initial biallelic variants in GGPS1 followed by GGPS1 Sanger sequencing or WES in 5 additional families with the same phenotype. Molecular modeling, biochemical analysis, laser membrane injury assay, and the generation of a Y259C knock-in mouse were done. RESULTS: A total of 11 patients in 6 families carrying 5 different biallelic pathogenic variants in specific domains of GGPS1 were identified. GGPS1 encodes geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase in the mevalonate/isoprenoid pathway, which catalyzes the synthesis of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, the lipid precursor of geranylgeranylated proteins including small guanosine triphosphatases. In addition to proximal weakness, all but one patient presented with congenital sensorineural hearing loss, and all postpubertal females had primary ovarian insufficiency. Muscle histology was dystrophic, with ultrastructural evidence of autophagic material and large mitochondria in the most severe cases. There was delayed membrane healing after laser injury in patient-derived myogenic cells, and a knock-in mouse of one of the mutations (Y259C) resulted in prenatal lethality. INTERPRETATION: The identification of specific GGPS1 mutations defines the cause of a unique form of muscular dystrophy with hearing loss and ovarian insufficiency and points to a novel pathway for this clinical constellation. ANN NEUROL 2020;88:332-347.
Study of Peri-Articular Anaesthetic for Replacement of the Knee (SPAARK): statistical analysis plan for a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of peri-articular liposomal bupivacaine plus bupivacaine hydrochloride compared with bupivacaine hydrochloride alone.
BACKGROUND: Up to three quarters of surgical patients receive inadequate pain relief, with 40% of patients reporting severe pain following knee replacement, which may indicate the current pain relief strategies using opiate-based analgesia cannot achieve patient satisfaction. Liposomal bupivacaine is liposome-encapsulated bupivacaine which has been reported to be effective for up to 72 h. The study of Peri-Articular Anaesthetic for Replacement of the Knee (SPAARK) trial has been designed to assess the effectiveness of peri-articular liposomal bupivacaine and bupivacaine hydrochloride compared with peri-articular bupivacaine hydrochloride alone in the management of post-operative pain following knee replacement. METHODS/DESIGN: The SPAARK trial is a multi-centre, patient-blinded, randomised controlled trial. The co-primary outcomes are post-operative recovery assessed by global QoR-40 scores at 72 h and cumulative pain VAS score from 6 to 72 h following surgery. Longer-term measures of the co-primary outcomes are collected at 6 weeks and 6 and 12 months post randomisation, together with secondary outcomes, i.e. the Oxford Knee Score, and the American Knee Society Score. Cumulative opiate use and fitness for discharge are measured up to 72 h post-surgery. The analysis approaches for the primary and secondary outcomes are described here, as are the descriptive statistics which will be reported. The full SPAARK protocol has already been published. RESULTS: The co-primary outcomes will be analysed using multivariate linear regression adjusting for stratification factors and other important prognostic variables, including baseline scores in the case of the QoR-40. The adjusted mean difference between the two groups together with 97.5% confidence intervals will be reported for each of the primary outcomes. Other continuous variables will be assessed using the same method. Binary outcomes will be assessed using chi-squared tests. DISCUSSION: The paper provides details of the planned statistical analyses for the SPAARK trial and aims to reduce the risk of outcome reporting bias from prior data knowledge. Any changes or deviations from this statistical analysis plan will be described and justified in the final study report. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN54191675 . Registered on 13 November 2017.
When COVID-19 hit the UK in early 2020, there were no known treatments for a condition that results in the death of around one in four patients hospitalised with this disease. Around the world, possible treatments were administered to huge numbers of patients, without any reliable assessments of safety and efficacy. The rapid generation of high-quality evidence was vital. RECOVERY is a streamlined, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial, which was set up in response to this challenge. As of April 2021, over 39,000 patients have been enrolled from 178 hospital sites in the UK. Within 100 days of its initiation, RECOVERY demonstrated that dexamethasone improves survival for patients with severe disease; a result that was rapidly implemented in the UK and internationally saving hundreds of thousands of lives. Importantly, it also showed that other widely used treatments (such as hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin) have no meaningful benefit for hospitalised patients. This was only possible through randomisation of large numbers of patients and the adoption of streamlined and pragmatic procedures focused on quality, together with widespread collaboration focused on a single goal. RECOVERY illustrates how clinical trials and healthcare can be integrated, even in a pandemic. This approach provides new opportunities to generate the evidence needed for high-quality healthcare not only for a pandemic but for the many other conditions that place a burden on patients and the healthcare system.
Study of Peri-Articular Anaesthetic for Replacement of the Knee (SPAARK): study protocol for a patient-blinded, randomised controlled superiority trial of liposomal bupivacaine.
BACKGROUND: Optimising the management of peri-operative pain and recovery following knee replacement has been identified as a patient priority. Current pain relief strategies use opiate-based analgesia; however, up to 50% of patients experience significant side effects. Local anaesthetic incisional infiltration is one alternative. The length of the duration of action is a major limiting factor of current local anaesthetic techniques. Liposomal bupivacaine has been reported to be effective for up to 72 h. This randomised controlled trial will evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of liposomal bupivacaine. METHODS: SPAARK is a patient-blinded, multi-centre, active comparator, superiority, two-arm, parallel-group randomised controlled trial. Five hundred patients undergoing knee replacement will be recruited and randomised to liposomal bupivacaine plus bupivacaine hydrochloride or bupivacaine hydrochloride alone. The co-primary outcomes are the Quality of Recovery 40 measured at 72 h post-surgery and also cumulative pain measured daily using a 0-10 visual analogue scale for the first 3 days following surgery. Secondary outcomes include cumulative opioid consumption, fitness for discharge, functional outcomes assessed using the Oxford Knee Score and American Knee Society Score, the EuroQol five dimensions instrument and complications. A cost utility analysis is also planned. DISCUSSION: The clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of liposomal bupivacaine have yet to be evaluated in the National Health Service, making this trial appropriate and timely. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN54191675. Registered on 14 November 2017.
<jats:p>NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains–containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation is beneficial during infection and vaccination but, when uncontrolled, is detrimental and contributes to inflammation-driven pathologies. Hence, discovering endogenous mechanisms that regulate NLRP3 activation is important for disease interventions. Activation of NLRP3 is regulated at the transcriptional level and by posttranslational modifications. Here, we describe a posttranslational phospho-switch that licenses NLRP3 activation in macrophages. The ON switch is controlled by the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) downstream of a variety of NLRP3 activators in vitro and in lipopolysaccharide-induced peritonitis in vivo. The OFF switch is regulated by two closely related kinases, TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and I-kappa-B kinase epsilon (IKKε). Pharmacological inhibition of TBK1 and IKKε, as well as simultaneous deletion of TBK1 and IKKε, but not of either kinase alone, increases NLRP3 activation. In addition, TBK1/IKKε inhibitors counteract the effects of PP2A inhibition on inflammasome activity. We find that, mechanistically, TBK1 interacts with NLRP3 and controls the pathway activity at a site distinct from NLRP3-serine 3, previously reported to be under PP2A control. Mutagenesis of NLRP3 confirms serine 3 as an important phospho-switch site but, surprisingly, reveals that this is not the sole site regulated by either TBK1/IKKε or PP2A, because all retain the control over the NLRP3 pathway even when serine 3 is mutated. Altogether, a model emerges whereby TLR-activated TBK1 and IKKε act like a “parking brake” for NLRP3 activation at the time of priming, while PP2A helps remove this parking brake in the presence of NLRP3 activating signals, such as bacterial pore-forming toxins or endogenous danger signals.</jats:p>
BACKGROUND: A rotator cuff tear is a common disabling shoulder problem. Symptoms include pain, weakness, lack of mobility and sleep disturbance. Many patients require surgery to repair the tear; however, there is a high failure rate. There is a pressing need to improve the outcome of rotator cuff surgery. The use of patch augmentation to provide support to the healing process and improve patient outcomes holds new promise. Different materials (e.g. human/animal skin or intestine tissue, and completely synthetic materials) and processes (e.g. woven or a mesh) have been used to produce patches. However, clinical evidence on their use is limited. The patch augmented rotator cuff surgery (PARCS) feasibility study aimed to determine the design of a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a patch to augment surgical repair of the rotator cuff that is both acceptable to stakeholders and feasible. METHODS: A mixed methods feasibility study of conducing a subsequent RCT. The project involved six stages: a systematic review of clinical evidence; a survey of the British Elbow and Shoulder Society's (BESS) surgical membership; a survey of surgeon trialists; focus groups and interviews with stakeholders; a two-round Delphi study administered via online questionnaires and a 2-day consensus meeting. RESULTS: The BESS surgeons' survey identified a variety of patches in use (105 (21%) responses received). Twenty-four surgeons (77%) completed the trialist survey relating to trial design. Four focus groups were conducted involving 24 stakeholders. Twenty-nine (67% of invited) individuals took part in the Delphi. Differing views were held on a number of aspects including the appropriate patient population for trial participation. Agreement on the key research questions and the outline of two potential RCTs were achieved through the Delphi study and the consensus meeting. CONCLUSIONS: Randomised comparisons of on-lay patch use for completed rotator cuff repairs, and bridging patch use for partial rotator cuff repairs were identified as areas for further research. The value of an observational study to assess safety concerns of patch use was also highlighted. The main limitation was that the findings were influenced by the participants, who might not necessarily reflect all stakeholders.
Temporal Trends and Geographical Variation in Dupuytren Disease Surgery in England: A Population-Based Cohort Study.
BACKGROUND: Dupuytren disease (DD) is a common fibroproliferative disease of the palmar fascia. The mainstay of DD treatment in England is surgery with either percutaneous needle fasciotomy, limited fasciectomy, or dermofasciectomy. This study aimed to investigate the temporal trends and geographical variation of primary DD surgery in England. METHODS: A longitudinal population-based cohort study was perfomed using the Hospital Episode Statistics database from April 1, 2007, to March 31, 2017. Directly standarized rates were estimated over time (between financial years 2007-2008 and 2016-2017) and by geographic region (by clinical commissioning groups [CCGs]; financial years 2010-2011, 2013-2014, and 2016-2017). The Office for National Statistics midyear population estimates were used as the reference population. MAIN FINDINGS: Primary DD surgery was undertaken at a steadily increasing rate from financial year 2007 to 2008, to 2016 to 2017 in England. There was a striking 3.6-fold variation in the rates of primary DD surgery among National Health Service CCGs in England place of residence. CONCLUSIONS: This significant variation in DD surgical treatment in England suggests a need for the development of standardized surgical practice across all CCGs and National Health Service hospitals, promoting equality of access to cost-effective health care.
A longitudinal cohort study of adolescent elite footballers and controls investigating the development of cam morphology
AbstractCam morphology describes an asphericity of the femoral head that develops during adolescence, is highly prevalent in athletes, and predisposes individuals to future osteoarthritis. However, it’s aetiology remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to perform 3-year longitudinal follow-up of a control population and football club academy cohort to compare the change in hip and growth plate anatomy between athletes and controls. MRI and questionnaires were used to characterise change in hip and growth plate anatomy and quantify activity levels. 121 male academy footballers and 107 male and female controls participated at baseline. Footballers experienced significantly greater increases in femoral head asphericity (4.83 degrees (95% CI: 2.84 to 6.82), p < 0.001) than controls. A positive correlation existed between activity levels and change in femoral head morphology (coefficient 0.79, p ≤ 0.001). Greatest morphological change occurred in individuals aged 11–12 years at baseline, with no significant change in individuals aged 14 years and older at baseline. Cam morphology development was secondary to soft tissue hypertrophy and lateral growth plate extension. In conclusion, excessive loading of the hip joint through exercise prior to 14 years of age may result in growth plate adaptations causing cam morphology. Potential interventions may include training type and load modification in young adolescent football players.