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Background: Over 10-years of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Birmingham presents an opportunity to explore epidemiological trends and risk factors for transmission in new detail. Methods: Between 1st January 2009 and 15th June 2019, we obtained the first WGS isolate from every patient resident in a postcode district covered by Birmingham's centralised tuberculosis service. Data on patients' sex, country of birth, social risk-factors, anatomical locus of disease, and strain lineage were collected. Poisson harmonic regression was used to assess seasonal variation in case load and a mixed-effects multivariable Cox proportionate hazards model was used to assess risk factors for a future case arising in clusters defined by a 5 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) threshold, and by 12 SNPs in a sensitivity analysis. Findings: 511/1653 (31%) patients were genomically clustered with another. A seasonal variation in diagnoses was observed, peaking in spring, but only among clustered cases. Risk-factors for a future clustered case included UK-birth (aHR=2·03 (95%CI 1·35-3·04), p
PURPOSE: In order to enable cost-utility analysis of shoulder pain conditions and treatments, this study aimed to develop and evaluate mapping algorithms to estimate the EQ-5D health index from the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) when health outcomes are only assessed with the OSS. METHODS: 5437 paired OSS and EQ-5D questionnaire responses from four national multicentre randomised controlled trials investigating different shoulder pathologies and treatments were split into training and testing samples. Separate EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L analyses were undertaken. Transfer to utility (TTU) regression (univariate linear, polynomial, spline, multivariable linear, two-part logistic-linear, tobit and adjusted limited dependent variable mixture models) and response mapping (ordered logistic regression and seemingly unrelated regression (SUR)) models were developed on the training sample. These were internally validated, and their performance evaluated on the testing sample. Model performance was evaluated over 100-fold repeated training-testing sample splits. RESULTS: For the EQ-5D-3L analysis, the multivariable linear and splines models had the lowest mean square error (MSE) of 0.0415. The SUR model had the lowest mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.136. Model performance was greatest in the mid-range and best health states, and lowest in poor health states. For the EQ-5D-5L analyses, the multivariable linear and splines models had the lowest MSE (0.0241-0.0278) while the SUR models had the lowest MAE (0.105-0.113). CONCLUSION: The developed models now allow accurate estimation of the EQ-5D health index when only the OSS responses are available as a measure of patient-reported health outcome.
Study protocol: use of a smartphone application to support the implementation of a complex physical activity intervention (+Stay Active) in women with gestational diabetes mellitus-protocol for a non-randomised feasibility study.
IntroductionPhysical activity (PA) interventions have a promising role in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Digital technologies can support PA at scale and remotely. The protocol describes a study designed to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a complex intervention; known as +Stay Active. +Stay Active combines motivational interviewing with a bespoke behaviour change informed smartphone application (Stay-Active) to augment PA levels in women with GDM.Methods and analysisThis is a non-randomised feasibility study using a mixed methods approach. Participants will be recruited from the GDM antenatal clinic at the Women Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford. Following baseline assessments (visit 1) including self-reported and device determined PA assessment (wearing a wrist accelerometer), women will be invited to participate in an online motivational interview, then download and use the Stay-Active app (Android or iOS) (visit 2). Women will have access to Stay-Active until 36 weeks gestation, when engagement and PA levels will be reassessed (visit 3). The target sample size is 60 women. Primary outcomes are recruitment and retention rates, compliance and assessment of participant engagement and acceptability with the intervention. Secondary outcomes are assessment of blood glucose control, self-reported and device determined assessment of PA, usage and structured feedback of participant's attitudes to +Stay Active, assessment of health costs and description of maternal and neonatal outcomes. This study will provide key insights into this complex intervention regarding engagement in smartphone technology and the wearing of accelerometers. These data will inform the development of a randomised controlled trial with refinements to intervention implementation.Ethics and disseminationThe study has received a favourable opinion from South Central-Hampshire B Research Ethics Committee; REC reference: 20/SC/0342. Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, conferences and seminar presentations.Trial registration numberISRCTN11366562.
Large-scale sequencing identifies multiple genes and rare variants associated with Crohn's disease susceptibility.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified hundreds of loci associated with Crohn's disease (CD). However, as with all complex diseases, robust identification of the genes dysregulated by noncoding variants typically driving GWAS discoveries has been challenging. Here, to complement GWASs and better define actionable biological targets, we analyzed sequence data from more than 30,000 patients with CD and 80,000 population controls. We directly implicate ten genes in general onset CD for the first time to our knowledge via association to coding variation, four of which lie within established CD GWAS loci. In nine instances, a single coding variant is significantly associated, and in the tenth, ATG4C, we see additionally a significantly increased burden of very rare coding variants in CD cases. In addition to reiterating the central role of innate and adaptive immune cells as well as autophagy in CD pathogenesis, these newly associated genes highlight the emerging role of mesenchymal cells in the development and maintenance of intestinal inflammation.
Two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination induce robust immune responses to emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.
The extent to which immune responses to natural infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and immunization with vaccines protect against variants of concern (VOC) is of increasing importance. Accordingly, here we analyse antibodies and T cells of a recently vaccinated, UK cohort, alongside those recovering from natural infection in early 2020. We show that neutralization of the VOC compared to a reference isolate of the original circulating lineage, B, is reduced: more profoundly against B.1.351 than for B.1.1.7, and in responses to infection or a single dose of vaccine than to a second dose of vaccine. Importantly, high magnitude T cell responses are generated after two vaccine doses, with the majority of the T cell response directed against epitopes that are conserved between the prototype isolate B and the VOC. Vaccination is required to generate high potency immune responses to protect against these and other emergent variants.
The impact of autoantibodies against citrullinated, carbamylated, and acetylated peptides on radiographic progression in patients with new-onset rheumatoid arthritis: an observational cohort study.
BACKGROUND: A range of anti-modified protein antibodies (AMPAs) are associated with rheumatoid arthritis. We aimed to assess the relationship between AMPA profiles and radiographic progression in patients with new-onset rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: In this cohort study, we obtained samples and data from the Scottish Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (SERA) inception cohort and biobank, which recruited patients with new-onset rheumatoid arthritis or undifferentiated arthritis who had at least one swollen joint from 20 hospitals across Scotland. AMPAs in plasma samples were measured by ELISAs at baseline. Paired radiographs of the hands and feet were taken at baseline and at 1 year and were scored with the Sharp-van der Heijde (SvH) method. We calculated differences in radiographic progression using estimated marginal mean changes between baseline and 1 year, with the baseline values of radiographic variables, rheumatoid factor, sex, age at recruitment, symptom duration, and Disease Activity Score 28 with C-reactive protein included as covariates. FINDINGS: Between March 1, 2011, and April, 30, 2015, 1073 patients were recruited to the SERA study. 362 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were included in our study and had their AMPA profiles determined. Patients were grouped into four main autoantibody profiles by reactivities to post-translational modifications: single positivity for anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPAs; 73 [20%]); double positivity for ACPAs and anti-acetylated peptide antibodies (AAPAs; 45 [12%]); triple positivity for ACPAs, AAPAs, and anti-carbamylated peptide antibodies (151 [42%]); and AMPA negativity (74 [20%]). 19 (5%) patients were in one of the minor autoantibody groups. Of the 233 patients with both antibody data and radiographs of sufficient quality, triple-positive patients had more radiographic progression between baseline and 12 months (estimated mean change in total SvH score 1·8, 95% CI 0·9-2·6, SE 0·4) than did single-positive patients (0·5, 0·1-1·0, 0·2; estimated mean difference in the total change in SvH score 1·2, 95% CI 0·1-2·4, SE 0·5). There was no difference in radiographic progression between single positive patients and AMPA negative patients (estimated mean change in total SvH score 0·7, 95% CI 0·1-1·4, SE 0·3; estimated mean difference in the total change in SvH score -0·2, 95% CI -1·1 to 0·7, SE 0·4). INTERPRETATION: This study suggests that the optimal prediction of future rates of radiographic progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis will require an assessment of autoantibodies against multiple post-translationally modified proteins or peptides. FUNDING: The EU FP7 HEALTH programme, the Scottish Translational Medicine Research Collaboration, and the Chief Scientist Office Scotland.
Tendon disease is a significant and growing burden to healthcare systems. One strategy to address this challenge is tissue engineering. A widely held view in this field is that mechanical stimulation provided to constructs should replicate the mechanical environment of native tissue as closely as possible. We review recent tendon tissue engineering studies in this article and highlight limitations of conventional uniaxial tensile bioreactors used in current literature. Advanced robotic platforms such as musculoskeletal humanoid robots and soft robotic actuators are promising technologies which may help address translational gaps in tendon tissue engineering. We suggest the proposed benefits of these technologies and identify recent studies which have worked to implement these technologies in tissue engineering. Lastly, key challenges to address in adapting these robotic technologies and proposed future research directions for tendon tissue engineering are discussed.
Anti-TNF (adalimumab) injection for the treatment of adults with frozen shoulder during the pain predominant stage protocol for a multi-centre, randomised, double blind, parallel group, feasibility trial
Objectives: The Anti-Freaze-F trial will assess the feasibility of conducting a large randomised controlled trial to assess whether intra-articular injection of anti-TNF (adalimumab) can reduce pain and improve function in people with pain predominant early stage frozen shoulder. Methods and analysis: We are conducting a multi-centre, randomised feasibility study, with an embedded qualitative sub-study. We will recruit adults ≥18 years with a new episode of shoulder pain attributable to early stage frozen shoulder, recruited from at least five UK NHS musculoskeletal and related physiotherapy services. Participants (n=84) will be randomised (centralised computer generated 1:1 allocation) to receive either: 1) intra-articular injection of anti-TNF (adalimumab 160mg) or 2) placebo injection (saline [0.9% sodium chloride]), both under ultrasound guidance. A second injection of the allocated treatment (adalimumab 80mg) or equivalent volume of placebo will be administered 2-3 weeks later. All participants will receive a physiotherapy advice leaflet providing education and advice about frozen shoulder and pain management. The primary feasibility objectives are: 1) the ability to screen and identify potential participants with pain predominant early stage frozen shoulder; 2) willingness of eligible participants to consent and be randomised to intervention; 3) practicalities of delivering the intervention, including time to first injection and number of participants receiving second injection; 4) standard deviation of the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) score and attrition rate at 3 months from baseline in order to estimate the sample size for a definitive trial. We will also assess follow up rates and viability of patient-reported outcome measures and range of shoulder motion for a definitive trial. Research Ethics Committee approval (REC 21/NE/0214). Trial registration number: ISRCTN 27075727; EudraCT number: 2021-003509-23; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05299242.
BACKGROUND: A rotator cuff tear is a common disabling shoulder problem. Symptoms include pain, weakness, lack of mobility and sleep disturbance. Many patients require surgery to repair the tear; however, there is a high failure rate. There is a pressing need to improve the outcome of rotator cuff surgery. The use of patch augmentation to provide support to the healing process and improve patient outcomes holds new promise. Different materials (e.g. human/animal skin or intestine tissue, and completely synthetic materials) and processes (e.g. woven or a mesh) have been used to produce patches. However, clinical evidence on their use is limited. The patch augmented rotator cuff surgery (PARCS) feasibility study aimed to determine the design of a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a patch to augment surgical repair of the rotator cuff that is both acceptable to stakeholders and feasible. METHODS: A mixed methods feasibility study of conducing a subsequent RCT. The project involved six stages: a systematic review of clinical evidence; a survey of the British Elbow and Shoulder Society's (BESS) surgical membership; a survey of surgeon trialists; focus groups and interviews with stakeholders; a two-round Delphi study administered via online questionnaires and a 2-day consensus meeting. RESULTS: The BESS surgeons' survey identified a variety of patches in use (105 (21%) responses received). Twenty-four surgeons (77%) completed the trialist survey relating to trial design. Four focus groups were conducted involving 24 stakeholders. Twenty-nine (67% of invited) individuals took part in the Delphi. Differing views were held on a number of aspects including the appropriate patient population for trial participation. Agreement on the key research questions and the outline of two potential RCTs were achieved through the Delphi study and the consensus meeting. CONCLUSIONS: Randomised comparisons of on-lay patch use for completed rotator cuff repairs, and bridging patch use for partial rotator cuff repairs were identified as areas for further research. The value of an observational study to assess safety concerns of patch use was also highlighted. The main limitation was that the findings were influenced by the participants, who might not necessarily reflect all stakeholders.
Protocol for a multi-site pilot and feasibility randomised controlled trial: Surgery versus PhysiothErapist-leD exercise for traumatic tears of the rotator cuff (the SPeEDy study).
BACKGROUND: Clinically, a distinction is made between types of rotator cuff tear, traumatic and non-traumatic, and this sub-classification currently informs the treatment pathway. It is currently recommended that patients with traumatic rotator cuff tears are fast tracked for surgical opinion. However, there is uncertainty about the most clinically and cost-effective intervention for patients with traumatic rotator cuff tears and further research is required. SPeEDy will assess the feasibility of a fully powered, multi-centre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the hypothesis that, compared to surgical repair (and usual post-operative rehabilitation), a programme of physiotherapist-led exercise is not clinically inferior, but is more cost-effective for patients with traumatic rotator cuff tears. METHODS: SPeEDy is a two-arm, multi-centre pilot and feasibility RCT with integrated Quintet Recruitment Intervention (QRI) and further qualitative investigation of patient experience. A total of 76 patients with traumatic rotator cuff tears will be recruited from approximately eight UK NHS hospitals and randomly allocated to either surgical repair and usual post-operative rehabilitation or a programme of physiotherapist-led exercise. The QRI is a mixed-methods approach that includes data collection and analysis of screening logs, audio recordings of recruitment consultations, interviews with patients and clinicians involved in recruitment, and review of study documentation as a basis for developing action plans to address identified difficulties whilst recruitment to the RCT is underway. A further sample of patient participants will be purposively sampled from both intervention groups and interviewed to explore reasons for initial participation, treatment acceptability, reasons for non-completion of treatment, where relevant, and any reasons for treatment crossover. DISCUSSION: Research to date suggests that there is uncertainty regarding the most clinically and cost-effective interventions for patients with traumatic rotator cuff tears. There is a clear need for a high-quality, fully powered, RCT to better inform clinical practice. Prior to this, we first need to undertake a pilot and feasibility RCT to address current uncertainties about recruitment, retention and number of and reasons for treatment crossover. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT04027205 ) - Registered on 19 July 2019. Available via.
Shoulder Pain Diagnosis, Treatment and Referral Guidelines for Primary, Community and Intermediate Care.
These care pathway guidelines for the shoulder have been written in collaboration with the NHS Evidence Based Interventions (EBI) programme. The EBI programme is a partnership between the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges, NHS Clinical Commissioners, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, as well as NHS England and Improvement.
SARS-CoV-2 infection and venous thromboembolism after surgery: an international prospective cohort study.
SARS-CoV-2 has been associated with an increased rate of venous thromboembolism in critically ill patients. Since surgical patients are already at higher risk of venous thromboembolism than general populations, this study aimed to determine if patients with peri-operative or prior SARS-CoV-2 were at further increased risk of venous thromboembolism. We conducted a planned sub-study and analysis from an international, multicentre, prospective cohort study of elective and emergency patients undergoing surgery during October 2020. Patients from all surgical specialties were included. The primary outcome measure was venous thromboembolism (pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis) within 30 days of surgery. SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was defined as peri-operative (7 days before to 30 days after surgery); recent (1-6 weeks before surgery); previous (≥7 weeks before surgery); or none. Information on prophylaxis regimens or pre-operative anti-coagulation for baseline comorbidities was not available. Postoperative venous thromboembolism rate was 0.5% (666/123,591) in patients without SARS-CoV-2; 2.2% (50/2317) in patients with peri-operative SARS-CoV-2; 1.6% (15/953) in patients with recent SARS-CoV-2; and 1.0% (11/1148) in patients with previous SARS-CoV-2. After adjustment for confounding factors, patients with peri-operative (adjusted odds ratio 1.5 (95%CI 1.1-2.0)) and recent SARS-CoV-2 (1.9 (95%CI 1.2-3.3)) remained at higher risk of venous thromboembolism, with a borderline finding in previous SARS-CoV-2 (1.7 (95%CI 0.9-3.0)). Overall, venous thromboembolism was independently associated with 30-day mortality (5.4 (95%CI 4.3-6.7)). In patients with SARS-CoV-2, mortality without venous thromboembolism was 7.4% (319/4342) and with venous thromboembolism was 40.8% (31/76). Patients undergoing surgery with peri-operative or recent SARS-CoV-2 appear to be at increased risk of postoperative venous thromboembolism compared with patients with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Optimal venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and treatment are unknown in this cohort of patients, and these data should be interpreted accordingly.
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p>BackgroundA rotator cuff tear is a common disabling shoulder problem. Symptoms include pain, weakness, lack of mobility and sleep disturbance. Many patients require surgery to repair the tear; however, there is a high failure rate. There is a pressing need to improve the outcome of rotator cuff surgery. The use of patch augmentation to provide support to the healing process and improve patient outcomes holds new promise. Different materials (e.g. human/animal skin or intestine tissue, and completely synthetic materials) and processes (e.g. woven or a mesh) have been used to produce patches. However, clinical evidence on their use is limited. The Patch Augmented Rotator Cuff Surgery (PARCS) feasibility study aimed to determine the design of a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a patch to augment surgical repair of the rotator cuff that is both acceptable to stakeholders and feasible.MethodsA mixed methods feasibility study of a RCT. The project involved six stages: a systematic review of clinical evidence; a survey of the British Elbow and Shoulder (BESS) society’s surgical membership; a survey of surgeon trialists; focus groups and interviews with stakeholders; a two-round Delphi study administered via online questionnaires; and a two-day Consensus Meeting. ResultsThe BESS surgeons’ survey identified a variety of patches in use (105 (21%) responses received). Twenty-four surgeons (77%) completed the trialist survey relating to trial design. Four focus groups were conducted involving 24 stakeholders. Twenty-nine (67% of invited) individuals took part in the Delphi. Differing views were held on a number of aspects including the appropriate patient population for trial participation. Agreement on the key research questions and the outline of two potential RCTs were achieved through the Delphi study and the consensus meeting). ConclusionsRandomised comparisons of on-lay patch use for completed rotator cuff repairs, and bridging patch use for partial rotator cuff repairs were identified as areas for further research. The value of an observational study to assess safety concerns of patch use was also highlighted. The main limitation was that the findings were influenced by the participants, who might not necessarily reflect all stakeholders.</jats:p>