Cellular and humoral mechanisms of osteoclast formation in Ewing's sarcoma.
Lau YS., Adamopoulos IE., Sabokbar A., Giele H., Gibbons CL., Athanasou NA.
Cellular mechanisms that account for tumour osteolysis associated with Ewing's sarcoma are uncertain. Osteoclasts are marrow-derived multinucleated cells (MNCs) that effect tumour osteolysis. Osteoclasts are known to form from macrophages by both receptor activator for nuclear factor-kappaB (RANK) ligand (RANKL)-dependent and -independent mechanisms. In this study, our aim has been to determine whether tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) isolated from Ewing's sarcoma are capable of differentiating into osteoclasts and to characterise the cellular and humoral mechanisms whereby this occurs. Tumour-associated macrophages were isolated from two Ewing's sarcomas and cultured on both coverslips and dentine slices for up to 21 days with soluble RANKL and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF). Osteoclast formation from TAMs (CD14+) was evidenced by the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and vitronectin receptor (VNR)-positive MNCs, which were capable of carrying out lacunar resorption. This osteoclast formation was inhibited by the addition of bisphosphonates. Both Ewing's sarcoma-derived fibroblasts and some bone stromal cells expressed RANKL and supported osteoclast formation by a contact-dependent mechanism. We also found that osteoclast differentiation occurred when Ewing's TAMs were cultured with tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in the presence of M-CSF and that TC71 Ewing's sarcoma cells stimulated osteoclast formation through the release of a soluble factor, the action of which was abolished by an antibody to TNF-alpha. These results indicate that TAMs in Ewing's sarcoma are capable of osteoclast differentiation by both RANKL-dependent and TNF-alpha-dependent mechanisms and that Ewing's sarcoma cells produce osteoclastogenic factor(s). Our findings suggest that anti-resorptive and anti-osteoclastogenic therapies may be useful in inhibiting the osteolysis of Ewing's sarcoma.