Inflammation protects against infection and promotes tissue repair after injury. However, when inflammation fails to subside it can contribute to the development of a wide range of chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease and certain types of cancer. This theme focuses on understanding inflammatory cell types and the complex positive and negative processes that control the start, progression and resolution of the response. In particular, single cell genomic and proteomic approaches are used to define signalling and regulatory pathways that underpin the behaviour of diseased tissue. Our research provides basic insight into disease process and reveals strategies for development of new biomarkers or therapies.