The epidemiology of osteonecrosis: findings from the GPRD and THIN databases in the UK.
Cooper C., Steinbuch M., Stevenson R., Miday R., Watts NB.
UNLABELLED: We conducted a case-control study to examine osteonecrosis (ON) incidence, patient characteristics, and selected potential risk factors using two health record databases in the UK. Statistically significant risk factors for ON included systemic corticosteroid use, hospitalization, referral or specialist visit, bone fracture, any cancer, osteoporosis, connective tissue disease, and osteoarthritis. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this case-control study was to examine the incidence of osteonecrosis (ON), patient characteristics, and selected potential risk factors for ON using two health record databases in the UK: the General Practice Research Database and The Health Improvement Network. METHODS: ON cases (n = 792) were identified from 1989 to 2003 and individually matched (age, sex, and medical practice) up to six controls (n = 4,660) with no record of ON. Possible risk factors were considered for inclusion based on a review of published literature. Annual incidence rates were computed, and a multivariable logistic regression model was derived to evaluate selected risk factors. RESULTS: ON of the hip represented the majority of cases (75.9%). Statistically significant risk factors for ON were systemic corticosteroid use in the previous 2 years, hospitalization, referral or specialist visit, bone fracture, any cancer, osteoporosis, connective tissue disease, and osteoarthritis within the past 5 years. Only 4.4% of ON cases were exposed to bisphosphonates within the previous 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides further perspective on the descriptive epidemiology of ON. Studies utilizing more recent data may further elucidate the understanding of ON key predictors.