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OBJECTIVE: To identify and prioritise research questions concerning the elective surgical management of children with conditions affecting the lower limb by engaging patients, carers and healthcare professionals. DESIGN: A modified nominal group technique. SETTING: UK. PARTICIPANTS: 388 individuals (29 patients, 155 parents/carers, 204 healthcare professionals) were recruited through hospital clinics, patient charities and professional organisations and participated in the initial prioritisation survey; 234 individuals took part in the interim prioritisation survey. 33 individuals (3 patients, 9 parents/carers, 11 healthcare professionals, 7 individuals representing the project's steering group and 3 James Lind Alliance (JLA) facilitators) attended the final face-to-face workshop to rank the top 10 research priorities. INTERVENTIONS: Surveys were distributed using various media resources such as newsletters, internet messaging boards and the 'Paediatric Lower Limb Surgery Priority Setting Partnership (PSP) website. Printed copies of the questionnaire were also made available to families in outpatient clinics. OUTCOME MEASURES: Survey results, top 10 and top 26 priority rankings RESULTS: The process took 18 months to complete (July 2017-January 2019); 388 people generated 1023 questions; a total of 801 research questions were classified as true uncertainties. Following the JLA methodology, 75 uncertainties were developed from the initial 801 questions. Twenty six of those were selected through a second survey and were taken to the final face-to-face workshop where the top 10 research priorities were selected. The top10 priorities included questions on cerebral palsy, common hip conditions (ie, Perthes' disease and developmental dysplasia of the hip) as well as rehabilitation techniques and methods to improve shared decision-making between clinicians and patients/families. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first JLA PSP in children's orthopaedic surgery, a particularly under-researched and underfunded area. We have identified important research topics which will guide researchers and funders and direct their efforts in future research.

Original publication




Journal article


Bmj open

Publication Date





James Lind Alliance, lower limb surgery, research prioritisation, Child, Cooperative Behavior, Elective Surgical Procedures, Health Priorities, Humans, Lower Extremity, Research