Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Observational studies suggest that diabetes is associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer, but few are population based or have investigated associations with cancer stage or duration of diabetes. We report a case-control study nested within the population-based Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) study ISRCTN20141297. Men aged 50-69 years based around 9 UK cities were invited for a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test between June 2002 and November 2006. Amongst 55,215 PSA-tested men, 1,966 had histologically confirmed prostate cancer; of these, 1,422 (72.3%) completed the questionnaire and 1,291 (65.7%) had complete data for analysis. We randomly selected 6,479 age- (within 5 years) and general practice-matched controls. The prevalence of diabetes was 89/1,291 (6.9%) in cases and 555/6,479 (8.6%) in controls. Diabetes was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio = 0.78; 95% confidence interval: 0.61-0.99). There was weak evidence that the inverse association was greater for well- versus poorly differentiated cancers (p = 0.07). The magnitude of the inverse association did not change with increasing duration of diabetes (p for trend = 0.95). Diabetes is associated with a decreased risk of PSA-detected prostate cancer. These data add to the evidence of the association of diabetes with prostate cancer in the PSA era.

Original publication




Journal article


Int j cancer

Publication Date





440 - 446


Aged, Body Mass Index, Case-Control Studies, Diabetes Mellitus, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Prostate-Specific Antigen, Prostatic Neoplasms, Time Factors