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In humans, the monocyte pool comprises three subsets (classical, intermediate, and nonclassical) that circulate in dynamic equilibrium. The kinetics underlying their generation, differentiation, and disappearance are critical to understanding both steady-state homeostasis and inflammatory responses. Here, using human in vivo deuterium labeling, we demonstrate that classical monocytes emerge first from marrow, after a postmitotic interval of 1.6 d, and circulate for a day. Subsequent labeling of intermediate and nonclassical monocytes is consistent with a model of sequential transition. Intermediate and nonclassical monocytes have longer circulating lifespans (∼4 and ∼7 d, respectively). In a human experimental endotoxemia model, a transient but profound monocytopenia was observed; restoration of circulating monocytes was achieved by the early release of classical monocytes from bone marrow. The sequence of repopulation recapitulated the order of maturation in healthy homeostasis. This developmental relationship between monocyte subsets was verified by fate mapping grafted human classical monocytes into humanized mice, which were able to differentiate sequentially into intermediate and nonclassical cells.

Original publication

DOI

10.1084/jem.20170355

Type

Journal article

Journal

J exp med

Publication Date

03/07/2017

Volume

214

Pages

1913 - 1923

Keywords

Animals, Bone Marrow Cells, Cell Differentiation, Cell Survival, Cells, Cultured, Deuterium, Endotoxemia, Flow Cytometry, Homeostasis, Humans, Inflammation, Isotope Labeling, Mice, Monocytes, Time Factors