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CONTEXT: Next-generation imaging includes positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (wbMRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging. Accurate quantification of oligometastatic disease using next-generation imaging is important to define the role and value of metastasis-directed therapy (MDT). OBJECTIVE: To perform a review of next-generation imaging modalities in the detection of recurrent oligometastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer in men who received prior radical treatment for localized disease. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Libraries, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched for studies reporting next-generation imaging and oncological outcomes. An expert panel of urologists, radiation oncologists, radiologists, and nuclear medicine physicians performed a nonsystematic review of strengths and limitations of currently available imaging options for detecting the presence and extent of recurrent oligometastatic disease. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: From 370 articles identified, three clinical trials and 21 observational studies met the following inclusion criteria: metachronous oligometastatic recurrence after radical treatment for prostate cancer, MDT, and hormone-sensitive patients. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was allowed before MDT. Next-generation imaging modalities included PET/computed tomography and/or PET/MRI with the following tracers: choline (n = 1), NaF (n = 1), and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA; n = 1) for clinical trials; choline (n = 7) or PSMA (n = 11) or both (n = 3) for observational studies. The number of metastases ranged from two to five lesions in most studies. In PSMA-based studies, progression-free survival ranged from 19% to 100%, whereas in studies employing choline, progression-free survival ranged from 16% to 93%. Overall, ADT-free survival ranged from 48% to 79%, while local control was reported as 75-100% and prostate-specific antigen response as 23-94%. Among the different PET tracers and wbMRI, PSMA PET is emerging as the most accurate imaging technique in defining the oligometastatic status. CONCLUSIONS: PSMA and choline PET contribute to guiding MDT in men with hormone-sensitive oligometastatic prostate cancer. Further studies are warranted to ascertain their role and optimize the timing of imaging for such patients. PATIENT SUMMARY: We looked at the evidence regarding the use of modern imaging techniques to direct additional treatments in men with early spread of prostate cancer after they receive their initial radical treatment. We found that next-generation imaging, in particular prostate-specific membrane antigen and choline positron emission tomography, can successfully guide metastasis-directed therapies, and further trials should evaluate which modalities are best suited to improve outcomes for our patients.

Original publication




Journal article


Eur urol oncol

Publication Date



Choline, Fluciclovine, Oligometastatic, Positron emission tomography, Prostate cancer, Prostate-specific membrane antigen, Sodium fluoride, Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging