Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

INTRODUCTION: The objectives of this study were to estimate the economic burden of HPV in Italy, accounting for total direct medical costs associated with nine major HPV-related diseases, and to provide a measure of the burden attributable to HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58 infections. METHODS: A cost-of-illness incidence-based model was developed to estimate the incidences and costs of invasive cervical cancer, cervical dysplasia, cancer of the vulva, vagina, anus, penis, oropharyngeal, anogenital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) in the context of the Italian National Health System (NHS). We used data from hospital discharge records (HDRs) of an Italian region and conducted a systematic literature review to estimate the lifetime cost per case, the number of incident cases, the prevalence of HPV9 types. Costs of therapeutic options not included in the diagnosis-related group (DRG) tariffs were estimated through a scenario analysis. RESULTS: In 2018, the total annual direct costs were €542.7 million, with a range of €346.7-€782.0 million. These costs could increase considering innovative therapies for cancer treatment (range €16.2-€37.5 million). The fraction attributable to the HPV9 genotypes without innovative cancers treatment was €329.5 million, accounting for 61% of the total annual burden of HPV-related diseases in Italy. Of this amount, €135.9 million (41%) was related to men, accounting for 64% of the costs associated with non-cervical conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The infections by HPV9 strains and the economic burden of non-cervical HPV-related diseases in men were found to be the main drivers of direct costs.

Original publication




Journal article


Eur j health econ

Publication Date





829 - 840


Burden of disease, Human papillomavirus, Italy, Real world, Alphapapillomavirus, Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological, Cost of Illness, Costs and Cost Analysis, Female, Hospitalization, Humans, Italy, National Health Programs, Papillomavirus Infections, Uterine Cervical Diseases