Patient preferences for lifestyle behaviours in osteoporotic fracture prevention: a cross-European discrete choice experiment.
Beaudart C., Boonen A., Li N., Bours S., Goemaere S., Reginster J-Y., Roux C., McGowan B., Diez-Perez A., Rizzoli R., Cooper C., Hiligsmann M.
Using a discrete choice experiment, we aimed to assess patients' preferences with regard to adopting lifestyle behaviours to prevent osteoporotic fractures. Overall, the 1042 patients recruited from seven European countries were favourable to some lifestyle behaviours (i.e., engaging in moderate physical activity, taking calcium and vitamin D supplements, reducing their alcohol consumption and ensuring a normal body weight). INTRODUCTION: Alongside medical therapy, healthy lifestyle habits are recommended for preventing osteoporotic fractures. In this study, we aimed to assess patients' preferences with regard to adopting lifestyle changes to prevent osteoporotic fractures. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment was conducted in seven European countries. Patients with or at risk of osteoporosis were asked to indicate to what extent they would be motivated to adhere to 16 lifestyle packages that differed in various levels of 6 attributes. The attributes and levels proposed were physical activity (levels: not included, moderate or high), calcium and vitamin D status (levels: not included, taking supplements, improving nutrition and assuring a minimal exposure to sunlight daily), smoking (levels: not included, quit smoking), alcohol (levels: not included, moderate consumption), weight reduction (levels: not included, ensure a healthy body weight) and fall prevention (levels: not included, receiving general advice or following a 1-day fall prevention program). A conditional logit model was used to estimate a patient's relative preferences for the various attributes across all participants and per country. RESULTS: In total, 1042 patients completed the questionnaire. Overall, patients were favourable to lifestyle behaviours for preventing osteoporotic fractures. However, among the lifestyle behaviours proposed, patients were consensually not prone to engage in a high level of physical activity. In addition, in Ireland, Belgium, the Netherlands and Switzerland, patients were also not inclined to participate in a 1-day fall prevention program and Belgian, Swiss and Dutch patients were not prone to adhere to a well-balanced nutritional program. Nevertheless, we observed globally that patients felt positively about reducing their alcohol consumption, engaging in moderate physical activity, taking calcium and vitamin D supplements and ensuring a normal body weight, all measures aimed at preventing fractures. CONCLUSIONS: In a patient-centred approach, fracture prevention should take these considerations and preferences into account.