Australian golfers with and without osteoarthritis report reduced psychological distress and improved general health compared to a general population-based sample.
Stenner BJ., Boyle T., Archibald D., Arden N., Hawkes R., Filbay S.
OBJECTIVES: To (i) evaluate psychological distress and general health in Australian golfers and compare with a general population-based sample, and (ii) explore the relationship between playing golf, psychological distress and general health in individuals with osteoarthritis. DESIGN: Cross sectional. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey collected outcomes in 459 Australian Golfers (Kessler-10 Psychological Distress Scale, Short-Form 12 (Health Status), International Physical Activity Questionnaire, osteoarthritis status). Outcomes were compared between Australian golfers and a general population-based sample (Australian Health Survey, n = 16,370). Modified Poisson regression estimated the relationship between playing golf and general health in all participants and a subgroup with osteoarthritis (n = 128 golfers, n = 2216 general population). All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, education and smoking status. RESULTS: Playing golf was associated with lower psychological distress (adjusted mean difference (95 % confidence interval) -2.5 (-4.1 to -0.9)) and a greater likelihood of reporting good to excellent general health (adjusted relative risk (95 % confidence interval) 1.09 (1.05 to 1.13)) compared to the general population. Amongst people with osteoarthritis, playing golf was associated with lower psychological distress (adjusted mean difference -4.0 (95 % confidence interval -6.5 to -1.5)) and a greater likelihood of reporting good to excellent general health (adjusted relative risk (95 % confidence interval) 1.3 (1.2 to 1.4)). CONCLUSIONS: Golfers had lower levels of psychological distress and better general health than the general population, and this relationship was strongest in individuals with osteoarthritis.