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Parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is a recently identified human virus that has been found in livers of patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and in bone marrow of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). T cells are important in controlling viruses but may also contribute to disease pathogenesis. The interaction of PARV4 with the cellular immune system has not been described. Consequently, we investigated whether T cell responses to PARV4 could be detected in individuals exposed to blood-borne viruses.Interferon γ (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot assay, intracellular cytokine staining, and a tetrameric HLA-A*0201-peptide complex were used to define the lymphocyte populations responding to PARV4 NS peptides in 88 HCV-positive and 13 HIV-positive individuals. Antibody responses were tested using a recently developed PARV4 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.High-frequency T cell responses against multiple PARV4 NS peptides and antibodies were observed in 26% of individuals. Typical responses to the NS pools were >1000 spot-forming units per million peripheral blood mononuclear cells.PARV4 infection is common in individuals exposed to blood-borne viruses and elicits strong T cell responses, a feature typically associated with persistent, contained infections such as cytomegalovirus. Persistence of PARV4 viral antigen in tissue in HCV-positive and HIV-positive individuals and/or the associated activated antiviral T cell response may contribute to disease pathogenesis.

Original publication

DOI

10.1093/infdis/jir036

Type

Journal article

Journal

The Journal of infectious diseases

Publication Date

05/2011

Volume

203

Pages

1378 - 1387

Addresses

Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Keywords

T-Lymphocytes, Humans, Parvovirus, Parvoviridae Infections, Hepatitis C, HIV Infections, Antibodies, Viral, Antigens, Viral, Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte, Immunity, Cellular, Gene Expression Regulation, Interferon-gamma, Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay