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AIMS: Cardiovascular thrombosis is responsible a quarter of deaths annually worldwide. Current imaging methods for cardiovascular thrombosis focus on anatomical identification of thrombus but cannot determine thrombus age or activity. Molecular imaging techniques hold promise for identification and quantification of thrombosis in vivo. Our objective was to assess a novel optical and positron-emitting probe targeting Factor XIIIa (ENC2015) as biomarker of active thrombus formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Optical and positron-emitting ENC2015 probes were assessed ex vivo using blood drawn from human volunteers and passed through perfusion chambers containing denuded porcine aorta as a model of arterial injury. Specificity of ENC2015 was established with co-infusion of a factor XIIIa inhibitor. In vivo18F-ENC2015 biodistribution, kinetics, radiometabolism, and thrombus binding were characterized in rats. Both Cy5 and fluorine-18 labelled ENC2015 rapidly and specifically bound to thrombi. Thrombus uptake was inhibited by a factor XIIIa inhibitor. 18F-ENC2015 remained unmetabolized over 8 h when incubated in ex vivo human blood. In vivo, 42% of parent radiotracer remained in blood 60 min post-administration. Biodistribution studies demonstrated rapid clearance from tissues with elimination via the urinary system. In vivo,18F-ENC2015 uptake was markedly increased in the thrombosed carotid artery compared to the contralateral patent artery (mean standard uptake value ratio of 2.40 vs. 0.74, P 

Original publication




Journal article


Eur heart j cardiovasc imaging

Publication Date





673 - 682


Atherothrombosis, PET/CT, Positron emission tomography, Radiotracer, Thrombosis, Thrombus, Animals, Factor XIIIa, Fibrin, Molecular Imaging, Rats, Swine, Thrombosis, Tissue Distribution