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The analysis of suppression of cytokines in rheumatoid synovial tissue and fluid pioneered the studies of human cytokines in diseased tissue due to the relative ease of staining samples, even at the height of the inflammatory process. These studies led to the study of synovial cytokine regulation, and the identification of TNF as a therapeutic target, which has been amply validated in clinical trials and now routine therapy. The next key question was how is TNF disregulated in synovium. Are there differences between the mechanisms of synovial TNF production compared to the production of protective TNF during an immune response? Are there differences between the induction of the pro-inflammatory TNF and the anti inflammatory IL-10? The analysis of the interaction of the two most abundant synovial cells, T lymphocytes and macrophages has provided interesting clues to new therapeutic approaches based on disrupting T-macrophage interaction.


Journal article


Curr top microbiol immunol

Publication Date





177 - 194


Animals, Arthritis, Rheumatoid, Cell Communication, Cell Lineage, Cytokines, Humans, Lymphocyte Activation, Macrophages, Monocytes, Signal Transduction, T-Lymphocytes