Predicting the risk of chronic kidney disease in the UK: an evaluation of QKidney® scores using a primary care database.
Collins G., Altman D.
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is a major health concern that, if left untreated, may progress to end-stage kidney failure (ESKF). Identifying individuals at an increased risk of kidney disease and who might benefit from a therapeutic or preventive intervention is an important challenge. AIM: To evaluate the performance of the QKidney® scores for predicting 5-year risk of developing moderate-severe kidney disease and ESKF in an independent UK cohort of patients from general practice records. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study to evaluate the performance of two risk scores for kidney disease in 364 practices from the UK, contributing to The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. METHOD: Data were obtained from 1.6 million patients registered with a general practice surgery between 1 January 2002 and 1 July 2008, aged 35-74 years, with 43,186 incident cases of moderate-severe kidney disease and 2663 incident cases of ESKF. This is the first recorded evidence of moderate-severe chronic kidney and ESKF as recorded in general practice records. RESULTS: The results from this independent and external validation of QKidney scores indicate that both scores showed good performance data for both moderate-severe kidney disease and ESKF, on a large cohort of general practice patients. Discrimination and calibration statistics were better for models including serum creatinine; however, there were considerable amounts of missing data for serum creatinine. QKidney scores both with and without serum creatinine were well calibrated. CONCLUSION: QKidney scores have been shown to be useful tools to predict the 5-year risk of moderate-severe kidney disease and ESKF in the UK.