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BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is a major health concern that, if left untreated, may progress to end-stage kidney failure (ESKF). Identifying individuals at an increased risk of kidney disease and who might benefit from a therapeutic or preventive intervention is an important challenge. AIM: To evaluate the performance of the QKidney® scores for predicting 5-year risk of developing moderate-severe kidney disease and ESKF in an independent UK cohort of patients from general practice records. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study to evaluate the performance of two risk scores for kidney disease in 364 practices from the UK, contributing to The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. METHOD: Data were obtained from 1.6 million patients registered with a general practice surgery between 1 January 2002 and 1 July 2008, aged 35-74 years, with 43,186 incident cases of moderate-severe kidney disease and 2663 incident cases of ESKF. This is the first recorded evidence of moderate-severe chronic kidney and ESKF as recorded in general practice records. RESULTS: The results from this independent and external validation of QKidney scores indicate that both scores showed good performance data for both moderate-severe kidney disease and ESKF, on a large cohort of general practice patients. Discrimination and calibration statistics were better for models including serum creatinine; however, there were considerable amounts of missing data for serum creatinine. QKidney scores both with and without serum creatinine were well calibrated. CONCLUSION: QKidney scores have been shown to be useful tools to predict the 5-year risk of moderate-severe kidney disease and ESKF in the UK.

Original publication




Journal article


Br j gen pract

Publication Date





e243 - e250


Adult, Aged, Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, Chronic Disease, Creatinine, Disease Progression, Female, Humans, Incidence, Kidney Diseases, Kidney Failure, Chronic, Male, Middle Aged, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, Severity of Illness Index, Smoking, United Kingdom