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Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is a sensor region for luminal content and plays an important role in lymphoid maturation, activation and differentiation. It comprises isolated and aggregated lymphoid follicles, cryptopatches (CPs) and tertiary lymphoid tissue. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play a central role within GALT. Prenatal GALT development is dependent on ILC lymphoid-inducer function. Postnatally, these cells rapidly respond to commensal and pathogenic intestinal bacteria, parasites and food components by polarized cytokine production [such as interleukin (IL)-22, IL-17 or IL-13] and further contribute to GALT formation and function. Here, we discuss how ILCs shape lymphoid intestinal microenvironments and act as amplifier cells for innate and adaptive immune responses.

Original publication

DOI

10.1016/j.it.2012.04.004

Type

Journal article

Journal

Trends in immunology

Publication Date

06/2012

Volume

33

Pages

289 - 296

Addresses

Translational Gastroenterology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK.

Keywords

Intestines, Lymphocytes, Animals, Humans, Cell Communication, Immunity, Innate, Cellular Microenvironment