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Osteoporotic fracture is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in women throughout the world. However, significant variation in hip fracture rates among women from different nations has been observed and is likely to represent a combination of real and apparent differences due to ascertainment bias. Higher rates are observed in Caucasian women, with lowest rates observed in black women and intermediate rates among Asian women. These differences are likely to represent a combination of genetic and environmental differences; for example, among European women, the highest fracture rates are observed in Scandinavian women where vitamin D insufficiency is common. In all groups, an increase in absolute fracture numbers is anticipated due to demographic changes.

Original publication




Journal article


Womens health (lond)

Publication Date





673 - 684


Accidental Falls, African Continental Ancestry Group, Asian Continental Ancestry Group, European Continental Ancestry Group, Female, Global Health, Health Behavior, Health Status, Humans, Osteoporotic Fractures, Spinal Fractures, Sunlight, Vitamin D Deficiency, Women's Health