A multidisciplinary approach to giant cell tumors of tendon sheath and synovium--a critical appraisal of literature and treatment proposal.
van der Heijden L., Gibbons CL., Hassan AB., Kroep JR., Gelderblom H., van Rijswijk CS., Nout RA., Bradley KM., Athanasou NA., Dijkstra PD., Hogendoorn PC., van de Sande MA.
Giant cell tumors deriving from synovium are classified into a localized (GCT of tendon sheath; GCT-TS) and diffuse form (diffuse-type GCT, Dt-GCT). We propose a multidisciplinary management based upon a systematic review and authors' opinion. Open excision for GCT-TS and open synovectomy (plus excision) for Dt-GCT is advised to reduce the relatively high recurrence risk. External beam radiotherapy should be considered in severe cases, as Dt-GCT commonly extends extra-articular.