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Antigen recognition is a key event during T cell activation. Here, we introduce nanopatterned antigen arrays that mimic the antigen presenting cell surface during T cell activation. The assessment of activation related events revealed the requirement of a minimal density of 90-140 stimulating major histocompatibility complex class II proteins (pMHC) molecules per μm(2). We demonstrate that these substrates induce T cell responses in a pMHC dose-dependent manner and that the number of presented pMHCs dominates over local pMHC density.

Original publication




Journal article


Nano lett

Publication Date





5619 - 5626


Antigen-Presenting Cells, Humans, Lymphocyte Activation, Major Histocompatibility Complex, Membrane Proteins, Nanoparticles, Synapses, T-Lymphocytes