Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Coaxial four-needle electrohydrodynamic forming is applied for the first time to prepare layered structures in both particle and fiber form. Four different biocompatible polymers, polyethylene glycol, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid), polycaprolactone, and polymethylsilsesquioxane, are used to generate four distinct layers confirmed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy combined with focused ion beam milling. The incorporation and release of different dyes within the polymeric system of four layers are demonstrated, something that is much desired in modern applications such as the polypill where multiple active pharmaceutical ingredients can be combined to treat numerous diseases. This work describes the worlds' first electrohydrodynamic device and process that has the ability to mass produce, separately, four-layered polymeric particles and fibers. The device contains four coaxial nozzles which can simultaneously deliver four polymer solutions under an applied voltage and a flow rate. Dyes, which mimic active pharmaceutical ingredients, are incorporated in each polymer and their release is monitored. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Original publication




Journal article


Macromolecular rapid communications

Publication Date





618 - 623