Lessons learned in posterior cranial vault distraction.
Thomas GPL., Wall SA., Jayamohan J., Magdum SA., Richards PG., Wiberg A., Johnson D.
INTRODUCTION: Posterior distraction (PD) is rapidly emerging as an important technique to increase the intracranial volume and correct calvarial morphology in patients with severe brachycephaly or turribrachycephaly. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all 31 patients who underwent PD at the Oxford Craniofacial Unit between 2007 and 2012. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients (74.2%) underwent PD as a primary procedure at a median age of 8 months. Eight patients (25.8%) had PD as a secondary transcranial procedure at a median age of 48 months. Full distraction to 20 mm was achieved in 28 patients (90.3%). Of these, all but 1 demonstrated a significant improvement in morphology, with a resolution of the symptoms and signs of raised intracranial pressure in all proven to have it preoperatively. Unanticipated events occurred in 61.3% of patients, with 19.4% undergoing one or more unplanned procedures. Wound infection (29.0%) and tissue necrosis (22.6%) were the commonest. Cerebrospinal fluid leaks were rarer (6.5%) but prevented full distraction. Nine patients (29.0%) had a consolidation period of less than 30 days without experiencing relapse. In 11 patients who had a later fronto-orbital advancement and remodeling, wound closure was tight, resulting in dehiscence in 3 cases (27.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Posterior distraction is an effective procedure in the management of severe brachycephaly or turribrachycephaly but has associated risks. Our protocol has evolved with experience to favor a reduced latency period and consolidation phase and the use of 2 distractor devices.