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To characterize the relationship between tranexamic acid (TXA) use and patient outcomes in a severely injured civilian cohort, and to determine any differential effect between patients who presented with and without shock.TXA has demonstrated survival benefits in trauma patients in an international randomized control trial and the military setting. The uptake of TXA into civilian major hemorrhage protocols (MHPs) has been variable. The evidence gap in mature civilian trauma systems is limiting the widespread use of TXA and its potential benefits on survival.Prospective cohort study of severely injured adult patients (Injury severity score > 15) admitted to a civilian trauma system during the adoption phase of TXA into the hospital's MHP. Outcomes measured were mortality, multiple organ failure (MOF), venous thromboembolism, infection, stroke, ventilator-free days (VFD), and length of stay.Patients receiving TXA (n = 160, 42%) were more severely injured, shocked, and coagulopathic on arrival. TXA was not independently associated with any change in outcome for either the overall or nonshocked cohorts. In multivariate analysis, TXA was independently associated with a reduction in MOF [odds ratio (OR) = 0.27, confidence interval (CI): 0.10-0.73, P = 0.01] and was protective for adjusted all-cause mortality (OR = 0.16 CI: 0.03-0.86, P = 0.03) in shocked patients.TXA as part of a major hemorrhage protocol within a mature civilian trauma system provides outcome benefits specifically for severely injured shocked patients.

Type

Journal article

Journal

Annals of surgery

Publication Date

02/2015

Volume

261

Pages

390 - 394

Addresses

*Centre for Trauma Sciences, Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom; and †Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Keywords

Humans, Wounds and Injuries, Hemorrhage, Shock, Hemorrhagic, Tranexamic Acid, Antifibrinolytic Agents, Treatment Outcome, Drug Administration Schedule, Injury Severity Score, Multivariate Analysis, Prospective Studies, Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Middle Aged, Female, Male, Young Adult