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e have assessed the reliability of four classification systems for club foot. Four observers evaluated nine children (18 feet) at different stages in the first six months of life, a total of 180 examinations. Each observer independently assessed all feet according to the classification systems described by Catterall, Diméglio et al, Harrold and Walker, and Ponseti and Smoley. The variation between observers was assessed using the kappa test which for no more agreement than chance has a value of 0, and for complete agreement between observers a value of 1. The kappa values varied between 0.14 and 0.77 depending on which classification system was used. The system of Diméglio et al was found to have the greatest reliability. Our findings suggest that current classification systems for the analysis of congenital talipes equinovarus are not entirely satisfactory.


Journal article


J bone joint surg br

Publication Date





1020 - 1024


Clubfoot, Humans, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Observer Variation, Reproducibility of Results