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Evidence-based medicine carefully assesses the information available in the literature by assessing both the results and the quality of the underlying studies. Studies are prone to both confounding and bias, and practitioners need to have a basic knowledge of how these factors are affected by various study types. This paper addresses the issues facing various study designs with the goal of helping practitioners understand what they can actually learn from different study designs.

Original publication




Journal article


J pediatr orthop

Publication Date



32 Suppl 2


S91 - S94


Bias, Child, Confounding Factors (Epidemiology), Evidence-Based Medicine, Humans, Orthopedic Procedures, Orthopedics, Pediatrics, Research Design