The definition and measurement of acetabular orientation.
The orientation of an acetabulum or an acetabular prosthesis may be described by its inclination and anteversion. Orientation can be assessed anatomically, radiographically, and by direct observation at operation. The angles of inclination and anteversion determined by these three methods differ because they have different spatial arrangements. There are therefore three distinct definitions of inclination and anteversion. This paper analyses the differences between the definitions and provides nomograms to convert from one to another. It is recommended that the operative definitions be used to describe the orientation of prostheses and that the anatomical definitions be used for dysplastic acetabula.