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OBJECTIVE: To describe, explain and give practical suggestions regarding important principles and key methodological challenges in the study design, statistical analysis, and reporting of results from in vivo studies. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-specifying endpoints and analysis, recognizing the common underlying assumption of statistically independent observations, performing sample size calculations, and addressing multiplicity issues are important parts of an in vivo study. A clear reporting of results and informative graphical presentations of data are other important parts.

Original publication




Journal article


Osteoarthritis cartilage

Publication Date





364 - 368


Analysis plan, Biostatistics, Experimental design, Inference, Results presentation, Study protocol, Animals, Biomedical Research, Clinical Protocols, Data Interpretation, Statistical, Humans, Osteoarthritis, Publications, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Research Design, Sample Size