Optimal acetabular orientation for hip resurfacing.
Grammatopoulos G., Pandit H., Glyn-Jones S., McLardy-Smith P., Gundle R., Whitwell D., Gill HS., Murray DW.
Pseudotumours are a rare complication of hip resurfacing. They are thought to be a response to metal debris which may be caused by edge loading due to poor orientation of the acetabular component. Our aim was to determine the optimal acetabular orientation to minimise the risk of pseudotumour formation. We matched 31 hip resurfacings revised for pseudotumour formation with 58 controls who had a satisfactory outcome from this procedure. The radiographic inclination and anteversion angles of the acetabular component were measured on anteroposterior radiographs of the pelvis using Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse software. The mean inclination angle (47 degrees, 10 degrees to 81 degrees) and anteversion angle (14 degrees, 4 degrees to 34 degrees) of the pseudotumour cases were the same (p = 0.8, p = 0.2) as the controls, 46 degrees (29 degrees to 60 degrees) and 16 degrees (4 degrees to 30 degrees) respectively, but the variation was greater. Assuming an accuracy of implantation of +/- 10 degrees about a target position, the optimal radiographic position was found to be approximately 45 degrees of inclination and 20 degrees of anteversion. The incidence of pseudotumours inside the zone was four times lower (p = 0.007) than outside the zone. In order to minimise the risk of pseudotumour formation we recommend that surgeons implant the acetabular component at an inclination of 45 degrees (+/- 10) and anteversion of 20 degrees (+/- 10) on post-operative radiographs. Because of differences between the radiographic and the operative angles, this may be best achieved by aiming for an inclination of 40 degrees and an anteversion of 25 degrees.