Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Musculoskeletal ageing is a major public health concern owing to demographic shifts in the population. Sarcopenia, generally defined as the age-related loss of muscle mass and function, is associated with considerable risk of falls, loss of independence in older adults and hospitalization with poorer health outcomes. This condition is therefore associated with increased morbidity and health care costs. As with bone mass, muscle mass and strength increase during late adolescence and early adulthood, but begin to decline substantially from ∼50 years of age. Sarcopenia is characterized by many features, which include loss of muscle mass, altered muscle composition, infiltration with fat and fibrous tissue and alterations in innervation. A better understanding of these factors might help us to develop strategies that target these effects. To date, however, methodological challenges and controversies regarding how best to define the condition, in addition to uncertainty about what outcome measures to consider, have delayed research into possible therapeutic options. Most pharmacological agents investigated to date are hormonal, although new developments have seen the emergence of agents that target myostatin signalling to increase muscle mass. In this review we consider the current approaching for defining sarcopenia and discuss its epidemiology, pathogenesis, and potential therapeutic opportunities.

Original publication




Journal article


Nat rev rheumatol

Publication Date





340 - 347


Adolescent, Adult, Body Composition, Diet, Humans, Middle Aged, Risk Factors, Sarcopenia, Smoking, Young Adult