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Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell neoplasm which is defined by strong interactions with the bone marrow microenvironment, a compartment with high cellular heterogeneity and unique structural and extracellular components. This necessitates the use of in vivo models for research to fully recapitulate MM growth conditions. The selection of appropriate model system is crucial, as each has advantages and shortcomings. Here, we describe the murine models available for studying MM, and focus on the methods for inoculating mice with MM cells via intravenous, intratibial or subcutaneous delivery, as well as monitoring of disease and organ processing for further analysis. The interaction and destruction of bone is a hallmark symptom of MM, and therefore many other complementary techniques used in calcified tissue research can be used, such as microCT, histomorphometry, and biomechanical testing.

Original publication





Publication Date





349 - 360


Bone disease, In vivo, Multiple myeloma, Murine model, Osteoblast, Osteoclast, Tumor, Animals, Bone Marrow, Cell Culture Techniques, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Separation, Disease Models, Animal, Flow Cytometry, Humans, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Inbred NOD, Mice, SCID, Multiple Myeloma, Spine, Tumor Microenvironment, X-Ray Microtomography