Sonothrombolysis with Magnetically Targeted Microbubbles.
de Saint Victor M., Barnsley LC., Carugo D., Owen J., Coussios CC., Stride E.
Microbubble-enhanced sonothrombolysis is a promising approach to increasing the tolerability and efficacy of current pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke. Maintaining therapeutic concentrations of microbubbles and drugs at the clot site, however, poses a challenge. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of magnetic microbubble targeting upon clot lysis rates in vitro. Retracted whole porcine blood clots were placed in a flow phantom of a partially occluded middle cerebral artery. The clots were treated with a combination of tissue plasminogen activator (0.75 µg/mL), magnetic microbubbles (∼107 microbubbles/mL) and ultrasound (0.5 MHz, 630-kPa peak rarefactional pressure, 0.2-Hz pulse repetition frequency, 2% duty cycle). Magnetic targeting was achieved using a single permanent magnet (0.08-0.38 T and 12-140 T/m in the region of the clot). The change in clot diameter was measured optically over the course of the experiment. Magnetic targeting produced a threefold average increase in lysis rates, and linear correlation was observed between lysis rate and total energy of acoustic emissions.