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The spectrum of female urethral and periurethral disorders includes both benign and malignant entities. Establishing an accurate clinical diagnosis may be challenging because symptoms and physical findings frequently overlap among the various entities. Recent technologic advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and ultrasonography (US) allow more detailed evaluation of urethral and periurethral abnormalities. Advances in MR imaging hardware and pulse sequences allow high-resolution, high-contrast static and dynamic imaging of the female urethral and periurethral region in the context of the entire pelvic floor. Similarly, the introduction of high-resolution surface and intracavitary transducers in conjunction with three-dimensional acquisition have enhanced the role of US in this clinical setting. High-resolution MR imaging and real-time US have exciting potential as tools for more comprehensive analysis of the pathophysiologic features of the complex disorders that affect the female urethra and periurethral tissues.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





1857 - 1874


Female, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasonography, Urethra, Urethral Diseases