Hypophosphatasia: biochemical screening of a Dutch kindred and evidence that urinary excretion of inorganic pyrophosphate is a marker for the disease.
Macfarlane JD., Poorthuis BJ., van de Kamp JJ., Russell RG., Caswell AM.
Hypophosphatasia is an inherited disease in which a deficiency of the bone/liver/kidney or tissue nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (AP; EC 188.8.131.52) occurs. All forms of the disease are characterized clinically by defective mineralization. Several biochemical abnormalities are associated with the deficiency of AP activity, e.g., increased urinary excretion of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and phosphoethanolamine (PEA). Measurement of these analytes in kindreds of patients with hypophosphatasia may be useful in identifying carriers, and in understanding the inheritance of the disease. We studied biochemically 22 members of the kindred of a 24-year-old woman with hypophosphatasia. We measured activity of AP in serum and leukocytes, and the urinary excretion of PPi and PEA. Within this kindred, urinary excretion of PPi appeared to indicate carrier status, and among the clinically normal adults, values for this analyte were inversely correlated with the activity of AP in serum. These results suggest that urinary excretion of PPi is sensitive to subtle changes in the activity of AP.