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Physiological and pathological bone resorption is mediated by osteoclasts, multinucleated cells which are formed by the fusion of monocyte / macrophage precursors. The canonical pathway of osteoclast formation requires the presence of the receptor activator for NFkappaB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF). Non-canonical pathways of osteoclast formation have been described in which cytokines / growth factors can substitute for RANKL or M-CSF to induce osteoclast formation. Substitutes for RANKL include LIGHT, TNFalpha and interleukins 6, 11 and 8. M-CSF substitutes include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), FLt-3 ligand and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). These growth factors can also influence canonical (RANKL / M-CSF-induced) osteoclast formation. Both canonical and non-canonical pathways of osteoclast formation play a role in the formation of osteolytic lesions where there is increased osteoclast formation and activity, such as in giant cell tumour of bone.

Original publication

DOI

10.14670/hh-24.337

Type

Journal article

Journal

Histology and histopathology

Publication Date

03/2009

Volume

24

Pages

337 - 346

Addresses

Department of Pathology, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Keywords

Osteoclasts, Humans, Osteolysis, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor, Cytokines, Models, Biological, RANK Ligand, Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B