Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

AIM: To determine the reported outcome domains and measures used to assess lower limb orthopaedic surgery of ambulant children and young people with cerebral palsy (CP) and map these outcomes to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY) framework. METHOD: This updated scoping review included studies published between January 2016 and July 2019 in five databases: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Studies were included if participants were ambulant individuals with CP aged between 0 and 20 years who had undergone lower limb orthopaedic surgery. Health outcome domains and measures were identified and classified using the ICF-CY framework. RESULTS: Forty-four eligible studies were identified with a total of 40 different outcome domains recorded. Among eligible studies, 44 (100%) measured body function and structural impairment and seven (16%) measured activity limitation and participation restriction. The most frequently reported outcome was gait pattern (n=37, 84%). Few studies reported adverse effects of surgery (n=13, 30%). Twenty-nine different outcome measures were identified. Patient-reported outcomes measures were used in 10 studies (23%). INTERPRETATION: The review highlights a heterogeneity in the reported outcome domains and measures used in CP studies. The majority of the reported outcomes focus on the ICF-CY domain of body function and structure. The review also highlights a notable shift towards patient-reported outcomes in recent years. Development of a core outcome set for lower limb orthopaedic surgery would guide researchers to use more consistent and complete measurement sets.

Original publication




Journal article


Dev med child neurol

Publication Date