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CONTEXT: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is considered a proinflammatory condition. Adipose tissue involvement seems evident because adiponectin levels correlate with disease remission and administration of leptin suppresses the low-grade systemic inflammation in mice with T1D. Whether adipose tissue involvement in T1D already occurs at a young age is yet unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to explore the extent of adipokine alterations in pediatric T1D and gain more insight into the mechanisms underlying the involvement of adipose tissue. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: First, plasma adipokine profiling (24 adipokines) of 20 children with onset T1D, 20 children with long-standing T1D, and 17 healthy controls was performed using a recently developed and validated multiplex immunoassay. Second, the effects of diabetic plasma factors on preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation were studied in vitro. RESULTS: In children with onset and long-standing T1D, plasma adipokine profiling showed increased levels of various adipokines acting at the crossroads of adipose tissue function and inflammation, including CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and the novel adipokines cathepsin S, chemerin, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, onset and long-standing diabetic plasma significantly induced preadipocyte proliferation and adipocyte differentiation in vitro (P < 0.05). Two candidate plasma factors, glucose and the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid, did not affect proliferation or adipocyte differentiation in vitro but were found to increase CCL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) secretion by adipocytes. CONCLUSIONS: The adipogenic effects of diabetic plasma in vitro and the altered adipokine levels in vivo suggest adipose tissue involvement in the low-grade inflammation associated with T1D, already in pediatric patients.

Original publication




Journal article


J clin endocrinol metab

Publication Date





463 - 472


Adipocytes, Adipokines, Adolescent, Cell Differentiation, Cells, Cultured, Child, Cohort Studies, Culture Media, Conditioned, Cytokines, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Fatty Acids, Nonesterified, Female, Humans, Hyperglycemia, Male, Primary Cell Culture