Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Interest in developing and using novel biomarkers in critical care and perioperative medicine is increasing. Biomarkers studies are often presented with flaws in the statistical analysis that preclude them from providing a scientifically valid and clinically relevant message for clinicians. To improve scientific rigor, the proper application and reporting of traditional and emerging statistical methods (e.g., machine learning) of biomarker studies is required. This Readers' Toolbox article aims to be a starting point to nonexpert readers and investigators to understand traditional and emerging research methods to assess biomarkers in critical care and perioperative medicine.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





15 - 25