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The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) and Adherence Starts with Knowledge (ASK-12) questionnaire were originally developed and validated in Western populations to assess beliefs and barriers to medication adherence. The study aim is to validate the BMQ and ASK-12 questionnaire for use in a Singapore population with early stage breast cancer. English-speaking women on adjuvant endocrine therapy (n = 157) were recruited. The BMQ-Specific showed good internal consistency with structural validity. The internal consistency of BMQ-General and ASK-12 Behaviour scale improved with the new factor structure obtained from exploratory factor analysis. Further studies are needed to confirm these factor structures.

Original publication




Journal article


J health psychol

Publication Date





1111 - 1124


adjuvant endocrine therapy, breast cancer, medication adherence, validation, Breast Neoplasms, Female, Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice, Humans, Medication Adherence, Reproducibility of Results, Surveys and Questionnaires