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Interest in the therapeutic applications of ultrasound is significant and growing, with potential clinical targets ranging from cancer to Alzheimer's disease. Cavitation - the formation and subsequent motion of bubbles within an ultrasound field - represents a key phenomenon underpinning many of these treatments. There remains, however, considerable uncertainty regarding the detailed mechanisms of action by which cavitation promotes therapeutic effects and there is a need to develop reliable monitoring techniques that can be implemented clinically. In particular, there is significant variation between studies in the exposure parameters reported as successfully delivering therapeutic effects and the corresponding acoustic emissions. The aim of this paper is to provide design guidelines and an experimental protocol using widely available components for performing studies of cavitation-mediated bioeffects, and include real-time acoustic monitoring. It is hoped that the protocol will enable more widespread incorporation of acoustic monitoring into therapeutic ultrasound experiments and facilitate easier comparison across studies of exposure conditions and their correlation to relevant bio-effects.

Original publication




Journal article


J vis exp

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