Burden of ischemic heart disease and its attributable risk factors in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019.
Safiri S., Karamzad N., Singh K., Carson-Chahhoud K., Adams C., Nejadghaderi SA., Almasi-Hashiani A., Sullman MJM., Mansournia MA., Bragazzi NL., Kaufman JS., Collins GS., Kolahi A-A.
AIMS: To report the prevalence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and its attributable risk factors in 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019, by age, sex, and socio-demographic index (SDI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Ischemic heart disease was defined as acute myocardial infarction (MI) and chronic IHD (angina; asymptomatic IHD following MI). Cause of death ensemble modelling was used to produce fatality estimates. The prevalence of the non-fatal sequalae of IHD was estimated using DisMod MR 2.1. All estimates were presented as counts and age-standardized rates per 100 000 population. In 2019, IHD accounted for 197.2 million (177.7-219.5) prevalent cases, 9.1 million (8.4-9.7) deaths, and 182.0 million (170.2-193.5) DALYs worldwide. There were decreases in the global age-standardized prevalence rates of IHD [-4.6% (-5.7, -3.6)], deaths [-30.8% (-34.8, -27.2)], and DALYs [-28.6% (-33.3, -24.2)] from 1990 to 2019. In 2019, the global prevalence and death rates of IHD were higher among males across all age groups, while the death rate peaked in the oldest group for both sexes. A negative association was found between the age-standardized DALY rates and SDI. Globally, high systolic blood pressure (54.6%), high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (46.6%), and smoking (23.9%) were the three largest contributors to the DALYs attributable to IHD. CONCLUSION: Although the global age-standardized prevalence, death, and DALY rates all decreased. Prevention and control programmes should be implemented to reduce population exposure to risk factors, reduce the risk of IHD in high-risk populations, and provide appropriate care for communities.