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The blood-brain barrier (BBB) continues to represent one of the most significant challenges for successful drug-based treatments of neurological disease. Mechanical modulation of the BBB using focused ultrasound (FUS) and microbubbles (MBs) has shown considerable promise in enhancing the delivery of therapeutics to the brain, but questions remain regarding possible long-term effects of such forced disruption. This review examines the evidence for inflammation associated with ultrasound-induced BBB disruption and potential strategies for managing such inflammatory effects to improve both the efficacy and safety of therapeutic ultrasound in neurological applications.

Original publication





Publication Date





459 - 470


blood–brain barrier, cavitation, focused ultrasound, immunomodulation, immunoprivilege, microbubbles, neurological disease, neurovasculature, sterile inflammation, Biological Transport, Blood-Brain Barrier, Brain, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Microbubbles, Neuroinflammatory Diseases