Water fluoridation and osteoporotic fracture.
Hillier S., Inskip H., Coggon D., Cooper C.
Osteoporotic fractures constitute a major public health problem. These fractures typically occur at the hip, spine and distal forearm. Their pathogenesis is heterogeneous, with contributions from both bone strength and trauma. Water fluoridation has been widely proposed for its dental health benefits, but concerns have been raised about the balance of skeletal risks and benefits of this measure. Fluoride has potent effects on bone cell function, bone structure and bone strength. These effects are mediated by the incorporation of fluoride ions in bone crystals to form fluoroapatite, and through an increase in osteoblast activity. It is believed that a minimum serum fluoride level of 100 ng/ml must be achieved before osteoblasts will be stimulated. Serum levels associated with drinking water fluoridated to 1 ppm are usually several times lower than this value, but may reach this threshold at concentrations of 4 ppm in the drinking water. Animal studies suggest no effect of low-level (0-3 ppm) fluoride intake on bone strength, but a possible decrease at higher levels. Sodium fluoride has been used to treat established osteoporosis for nearly 30 years. Recent trials of this agent, prescribed at high doses, have suggested that despite a marked increase in bone mineral density, there is no concomitant reduction in vertebral fracture incidence. Furthermore, the increase in bone density at the lumbar spine may be achieved at the expense of bone mineral in the peripheral cortical skeleton. As a consequence, high dose sodium fluoride (80 mg daily) is not currently used to treat osteoporosis. At lower doses, recent trials have suggested a beneficial effect on both bone density and fracture. The majority of epidemiological evidence regarding the effect of fluoridated drinking water on hip fracture incidence is based on ecological comparisons. Although one Finnish study suggested that hip fracture rates in a town with fluoridated water were lower than those in a matching town without fluoride, a later study failed to show differences. Ecological studies from the United States and Great Britain have, if anything, revealed a weak positive association between water fluoride concentration and hip fracture incidence. Two studies examining hip fracture rates before and after fluoridation yielded discordant results, and are complicated by underlying time trends in hip fracture incidence. Only two studies have attempted to examine the relation between water fluoride concentration and fracture risk at an individual level. In one of these, women in a high fluoride community had double the fracture risk of women in a low fluoride community. In the other, there was no relationship between years of fluoride exposure and incidence of spine or non-spine fractures. In conclusion, the epidemiological evidence relating water fluoridation to hip fracture is based upon ecological comparisons and is inconclusive. However, several studies suggest the possibility of a weak adverse effect, which warrants further exploration. Data on the relationship between fluoride intake and hip fracture risk at the individual level, and data relating fluoridation to bone mineral density are required. Until these become available, the burden of evidence suggesting that fluoridation might be a risk factor for hip fracture is weak and not sufficient to retard the progress of the water fluoridation programme.