Utility of pre-operative haemoglobin concentration to guide peri-operative blood tests for hip and knee arthroplasty: A decision curve analysis.
Dhiman P., Gibbs VN., Collins GS., Van Calster B., Bakhishli G., Grammatopoulos G., Price AJ., Taylor A., Murphy MF., Kendrick BJL., Palmer AJR.
OBJECTIVE: Assess the prognostic value of pre-operative haemoglobin concentration (Hb) for identifying patients who develop severe post-operative anaemia or require blood transfusion following primary total hip or knee, or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA, UKA). BACKGROUND: Pre-operative group and save (G&S), and post-operative Hb measurement may be unnecessary for many patients undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty provided individuals at greatest risk of severe post-operative anaemia can be identified. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients undergoing THA, TKA, or UKA between 2011 and 2018 were included. Outcomes were post-operative Hb below 70 and 80 g/L, and peri-operative blood transfusion. Logistic regression assessed the association between pre-operative Hb and each outcome. Decision curve analysis compared strategies for selecting patients for G&S and post-operative Hb measurement. RESULTS: 10 015 THA, TKA and UKA procedures were performed in 8582 patients. The incidence of blood transfusion (4.5%) decreased during the study. Using procedure specific Hb thresholds to select patients for pre-operative G&S and post-operative Hb testing had a greater net benefit than selecting all patients, no patients, or patients with pre-operative anaemia. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-operative G&S and post-operative Hb measurement may not be indicated for UKA or TKA when adopting restrictive transfusion thresholds, provided clinicians accept a 0.1% risk of patients developing severe undiagnosed post-operative anaemia (Hb